PURPOSE Blood or marrow transplantation (BMT) is an integral part of consolidation and/or salvage therapy for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). With the growing population of AML survivors, there is a need to understand the quality of their survival.MATERIALS AND METHODSThis multisite study included 1,369 2-year survivors who underwent BMT for AML between 1974 and 2014 at age ≥ 21 years and 1,310 siblings. Using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, severe/life-threatening and fatal chronic health conditions were identified. Multivariable regression analysis was used to compare the risk of severe/life-threatening conditions and health status between survivors and siblings, and to identify risk factors for health conditions among BMT survivors.RESULTSThe prevalence of severe/life-threatening conditions was 54.9% in BMT survivors compared with 28.5% in siblings (P <.001), yielding 3.8-fold higher odds of severe/life-threatening conditions (95% CI, 3.1 to 4.7) among the BMT survivors. The most prevalent conditions included subsequent neoplasms, diabetes, cataracts, venous thromboembolism, and joint replacement. Survivors were more likely to report poor general health (odds ratio [OR], 3.8; 95% CI, 2.8 to 5.1), activity limitation (OR, 3.7; 95% CI, 3.0 to 4.5), and functional impairment (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 2.3 to 3.6). Among BMT recipients, the 20-year cumulative incidence of severe/life-threatening/fatal conditions was 68%. History of chronic graft-versus-host disease was associated with a higher risk of pulmonary disease (hazard ratio [HR], 3.1; 95% CI, 1.0 to 9.3), cataract (HR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.4 to 3.8), and venous thromboembolism (HR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.3 to 4.7). Relapse-related mortality (RRM) plateaued at 30%, whereas non-RRM increased to 50% at 30 years.CONCLUSIONThe burden of severe/life-threatening conditions is substantially higher in BMT recipients when compared with an unaffected comparison group, contributing to an increasing incidence of non-RRM over time. Chronic graft-versus-host disease was an important risk factor for severe/life-threatening/fatal conditions among BMT recipients, informing the need for close monitoring to anticipate and manage morbidity.