Two interleukin-1 polypeptides, α and β, are known, and cDNAs corresponding to each have been described. Genomic cloning and Southern blotting experiments suggest that in the mouse each is encoded by a gene present in one copy per haploid genome. Analysis of a panel of somatic cell hybrids carrying various mouse chromosomes on a constant Chinese hamster background indicates that both genes map to mouse chromosome 2. Further, analysis of the inheritance of DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms associated with each gene in recombinant inbred strains of mice shows the two loci to be tightly linked to one another, and to lie approximately 4.7 centimorgans distal to B2m (beta-2 microglobulin). We have named the locus encoding IL-1αIl-1α and the locus encoding IL-1βIl-1b. © 1987 Springer-Verlag.