A total of 761 students (58.1% female) from selected fifth- and sixth-grade mathematics classrooms in Alabama were examined to investigate the relationships between individual learner variables (gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status [SES]) and mathematics performance. Specifically, this portion of the study examined individual learner variables and their effects on mathematics achievement as students advance from fifth to sixth grade. The two-group path analysis resulted in differences in the degree to which individual learner variables (i.e., gender, ethnicity, SES) affect self-regulated learning, motivation, anxiety, and mathematics achievement as students move from fifth to sixth grade. Path analysis results indicated that the constrained and unconstrained models were statistically different (p < .001), meaning that the findings were not consistent for the fifth- and sixth-grade students. Copyright © Association for Childhood Education International.