Spindle Cell Sarcoma of the Uterus Harboring MEIS1::NCOA1 Fusion Gene and Mimicking Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma

Academic Article

Abstract

  • MEIS1::NCOA1/2 sarcomas are a newly recognized group of exceedingly rare low-grade spindle cell sarcomas that often involve the genitourinary and gynecologic tracts. Due to its deceptively low-grade morphology and the non-specific immunoprofile, these neoplasms may pose a diagnostic challenge by histologically mimicking other entities such as endometrial stromal sarcoma, smooth muscle tumor, or uterine perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa). Histologically, MEIS1::NCOA1/2 sarcomas typically show spindle cell proliferation with hyperchromatic nuclei and a generalized cytologic uniformity, arranged in short fascicles and exhibiting alternating zones of hypo- and hypercellularity. Among the previously reported cases, molecular analysis revealed the MEIS1::NCOA2 fusion as the most commonly detected fusion gene, whereas the MEIS1::NCOA1 fusion gene has been reported in only a single case that involved kidney. Herein we report the first case of uterine sarcoma harboring the MEIS1::NCOA1 fusion gene that was initially misclassified as low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma, demonstrating its clinicopathologic features, and highlighting the essential role of molecular pathology to arrive at the accurate diagnosis that may alter disease classification and inform therapy.
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    Author List

  • Mejbel HA; Harada S; Stevens TM; Huang X; Netto GJ; Mackinnon AC; Al Diffalha S