EGFR is a prototypical receptor tyrosine kinase that is overexpressed in multiple cancers including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The standard of care for HNSCC remains largely unchanged despite decades of research. While EGFR blockade is an attractive target in HNSCC patients and anti-EGFR strategies including monoclonal antibodies and kinase inhibitors have shown some clinical benefit, efficacy is often due to the eventual development of resistance. In this review, we discuss how the acquisition of mutations in various domains of the EGFR gene not only alter drug binding dynamics giving rise to resistance, but also how mutations can impact radiation response and overall survival in HNSCC patients. A better understanding of the EGFR mutational landscape and its dynamic effects on treatment resistance hold the potential to better stratify patients for targeted therapies in order to maximize therapeutic benefits.