Objective: The minor allele (A) of the rs373863828 variant (p.Arg457Gln) in CREBRF is restricted to indigenous peoples of the Pacific islands (including New Zealand Māori and peoples of Polynesia), with a frequency of up to 25% in these populations. This allele associates with a large increase in body mass index (BMI) but with significantly lower risk of type-2 diabetes (T2D). It remains unclear whether the increased BMI is driven by increased adiposity or by increased lean mass. Methods: We undertook body composition analysis using DXA in 189 young men of Māori and Pacific descent living in Aotearoa New Zealand. Further investigation was carried out in two orthologous Arg458Gln knockin mouse models on FVB/NJ and C57BL/6j backgrounds. Results: The rs373863828 A allele was associated with lower fat mass when adjusted for BMI (p < 0.05) and was associated with significantly lower circulating levels of the muscle inhibitory hormone myostatin (p < 0.05). Supporting the human data, significant reductions in adipose tissue mass were observed in the knockin mice. This was more significant in older mice in both backgrounds and appeared to be the result of reduced age-associated increases in fat mass. The older male knockin mice on C57BL/6j background also had increased grip strength (p < 0.01) and lower levels of myostatin (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Overall, these results prove that the rs373863828 A-allele is associated with a reduction of myostatin levels which likely contribute to an age-dependent lowering of fat mass, at least in males.