The Potential for Teacher-Student Relationships and the Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child Model to Mitigate Adverse Childhood Experiences

Academic Article


  • BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with poorer health and educational outcomes. With over 20% of children experiencing multiple ACEs, interventions must target protective factors to improve outcomes among these students. Teacher-student relationships (TSRs) integrated with the Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child (WSCC) are one promising approach to building resilience to overcome ACEs. METHODS: A narrative literature review was conducted on ACEs, resilience, TSRs, and the WSCC model to explore the evidence and potential of TSR interventions integrated within the WSCC model to build resilience in students experiencing ACEs. RESULTS: Supportive adult relationships are one of the strongest protective factors against ACEs. TSR interventions have improved student and relationship outcomes. Few studies have explored the relationship between TSRs and ACEs or TSR ACEs interventions. The WSCC model provides opportunities to integrate TSRs and other protective factors into a schoolwide health model to build resilience. CONCLUSIONS: TSRs and the WSCC model are promising approaches to target protective factors to mitigate ACEs. Research is needed to further establish TSRs as a protective factor, explore TSR ACEs interventions, and determine best practices for integrating TSRs and resilience in the WSCC model.
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    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Keane K; Evans RR
  • Start Page

  • 504
  • End Page

  • 513
  • Volume

  • 92
  • Issue

  • 5