Purpose: Previously, clinical trials of experimental virotherapy for recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) demonstrated that inoculation with a conditionally replication-competent Dg134.5 oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV), G207, was safe. Following the initial safety study, a phase Ib trial enrolled 6 adult patients diagnosed with GBM recurrence from which tumor tissue was banked for future studies. Patients and Methods: Here, we analyzed tumor RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data obtained from pre- and posttreatment (collected 2 or 5 days after G207 injection) biopsies from the phase Ib study patients. Results: Using a Spearman rank-order correlation analysis, we identified approximately 500 genes whose expression pattern correlated with survival duration. Many of these genes were enriched for the intrinsic IFN-mediated antiviral and adaptive immune functional responses, including immune cell chemotaxis and antigen presentation to T-cells. Furthermore, we show that the expression of several T-cell-related genes was highest in the patient with the longest survival after G207 inoculation. Conclusions: Our data support that the oHSV-induced type I IFN production and the subsequent recruitment of an adaptive immune response differed between enrolled patients and showed association with survival duration in patients with recurrent malignant glioma after treatment with an early generation oHSV.