Brain-selective kinase 2 (BRSK2) has been shown to play an essential role in neuronal polarization. In the present study, we show that BRSK2 is also abundantly expressed in pancreatic islets and MIN6 β-cell line. Yeast two-hybrid screening, GST fusion protein pull-down, and co-immunoprecipitation assays reveal that BRSK2 interacts with CDK-related protein kinase PCTAIRE1, a kinase involved in neurite outgrowth and neurotransmitter release. In MIN6 cells, BRSK2 co-localizes with PCTAIRE1 in the cytoplasm and phosphorylates one of its serine residues, Ser-12. Phosphorylation of PCTAIRE1 by BRSK2 reduces glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in MIN6 cells. Conversely, knockdown of BRSK2 by siRNA increases serum insulin levels in mice. Our results reveal a novel function of BRSK2 in the regulation of GSIS in β-cells via a PCTAIRE1-dependent mechanism and suggest that BRSK2 is an attractive target for developing novel diabetic drugs. © 2012 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.