Nitric oxide (NO) is a short-life key bioregulatory active molecule in the cardiovascular, immune and nervous systems. NO is synthesized by converting L-arginine to L-citrulline by enzymes called NO synthase (NOS). The growing body of evidence strongly supports the theory that this molecule appears to be one of the key targets for the disruption of normal brain homeostasis, which causes the development of brain lesions and pathology such as in Alzheimer's disease (AD) or other related dementia. The vascular content of NO activity appears especially to be a main contributor to this pathology before the over-expression of other NOS isoforms activity in a different brain cellular compartment. We speculate that pharmacological intervention using NO donors and/or NO suppressors will be able to delay or minimize the development of brain pathology and further progression of mental retardation.