African Americans and Women Have Lower Functional Gains during Acute Inpatient Rehabilitation after Hemorrhagic Stroke

Academic Article


  • Objective Intracerebral hemorrhage can lead to significant long-term disability. While research in stroke rehabilitation has focused primarily on ischemic strokes, identifying factors that impact recovery in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage is necessary. Our purpose is to identify factors, including racial and sex disparities, associated with functional outcomes in intracerebral hemorrhage patients after inpatient rehabilitation. Design This was a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients with intracerebral hemorrhage admitted to an inpatient rehabilitation facility at an academic tertiary facility in the Southeastern United States from 2016 to 2019. Clinical characteristics, demographics, admission, and discharge Functional Independence Measure scores were collected. Results We evaluated 59 patients (54.4 ± 14.1 yrs, 39% females, 48.2% African American) with a median intracerebral hemorrhage volume of 13.4 (4.2-33.0) and a mean (SD) Functional Independence Measure efficiency of 1.8 ± 1.3. In multiple regression, being female was negatively associated with Functional Independence Measure efficiency (β = -1.13, P = 0.0037) when adjusting for race and intracerebral hemorrhage score. The Functional Independence Measure efficiency was lower in African Americans (β = -0.97, P = 0.0119) when adjusting for sex and intracerebral hemorrhage volume. Conclusions The results of our study indicate that Functional Independence Measure efficiency was worse for African Americans and female patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. Future research should consider these racial and sex disparities and focus on providing targeted rehabilitation therapy.
  • Authors

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Somani S; Nanavati H; Zhou X; Lin C
  • Start Page

  • 1099
  • End Page

  • 1103
  • Volume

  • 101
  • Issue

  • 12