Background: The volume-outcome relationship has been well-established for pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). It remains unclear if this is primarily driven by hospital volume or individual surgeon experience. Objective: This study aimed to determine the relationship of hospital and surgeon volume on short-term outcomes of patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma undergoing PD. Methods: Patients >65 years of age who underwent PD for pancreatic adenocarcinoma were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)–Medicare database (2008–2015). Analyses were stratified by hospital volume and then surgeon volume, creating four volume cohorts: low-low (low hospital, low surgeon), low-high (low hospital, high surgeon), high-low (high hospital, low surgeon), high-high (high hospital, high surgeon). Propensity scores were created for the odds of undergoing surgery with high-volume surgeons. Following matching, multivariable analysis was used to assess the impact of surgeon volume on outcomes within each hospital volume cohort. Results: In total, 2450 patients were identified: 54.3% were treated at high-volume hospitals (27.0% low-volume surgeons, 73.0% high-volume surgeons) and 45.7% were treated at low-volume hospitals (76.9% low-volume surgeons, 23.1% high-volume surgeons). On matched multivariable analysis, there were no significant differences in the risk of major complications, 90-day mortality, and 30-day readmission based on surgeon volume within the low and high hospital volume cohorts. Conclusion: Compared with surgeon volume, hospital volume is a more significant factor in predicting short-term outcomes after PD. This suggests that a focus on resources and care pathways, in combination with volume metrics, is more likely to achieve high-quality care for patients undergoing PD across all hospitals.