A retrospective quantitative radiographic analysis determined the effect of graft material and smoking status on the maintenance of graft height over 3 years. Analysis of variance models with planned comparison were constructed to compare mean graft change by (1) graft material and (2) smoking status. Maintenance of bone height was significantly greater in intraoral autogenous grafts versus allografts (P < .05). The effect of smoking on implant loss revealed a significant difference in implant survival (P < .05). Autogenous bone generally resulted in a more favorable outcome over a 3-year period. Smoking adversely impacted implant survival in sinus grafts.