Resistin is a recently described secretory protein produced in adipocytes that is thought to be involved in insulin resistance, diabetes, and inflammation. While resistin can be detected in mouse and human serum, very little is known about the regulation of serum resistin levels, especially in humans. To test whether resistin levels are affected by type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), we measured serum resistin levels in samples from 5 healthy volunteers and 6 patients with T1DM pre- and 3 months post-islet transplantation using a human resistin enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Interestingly, serum resistin levels were significantly higher in T1DM patients before transplantation compared to normal controls, but decreased to normal levels after islet transplantation. Thus, our results suggest that human resistin may be involved in the pathophysiology of T1DM and thereby reveal a heretofore unappreciated aspect of human resistin biology. © 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.