Cardiometabolic Risk in Childhood Cancer Survivors: A Report from the Children’s Oncology Group

Academic Article

Abstract

  • Background: Childhood cancer survivors are at risk for cardiovascular disease. We assessed the burden of potentially modifiable cardiometabolic risk factors (CRF) among survivors compared with population-matched controls. Methods: Survivors previously enrolled on Pediatric Oncology Group protocols 9404, 9425, 9426, 9754, and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute 95-01 from 1996 to 2001 with acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, or osteosarcoma were prospectively assessed for the prevalence of CRFs and compared with an age, sex, and race/ethnicity-matched 2013 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) population. We estimated future predicted cardiovascular risk based on general population (e.g., Framingham) and Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) models. Results: Compared with NHANES (n = 584), survivors [n = 164; 44.5% female, median age 28 years (range, 16–38 years); median 17.4 years (range, 13–22 years) since cancer diagnosis; median doxorubicin dose 300 mg/m2; 30.5% chest radiation] had similar rates of obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, but more prehypertension/hypertension (38.4% vs. 30.1%, P = 0.044). Survivors had fewer metabolic syndrome features compared with NHANES (≥2 features: 26.7% vs. 55.9%; P < 0.001). Survivors were more physically active and smoked tobacco less (both P < 0.0001). Therefore, general population cardiovascular risk scores were lower for survivors versus NHANES. However, with CCSS models, 30.5% of survivors were at moderate risk of ischemic heart disease, and >95% at moderate/high risk for heart failure, with a 9% to 12% predicted incidence of these conditions by age 50 years. Conclusions: Childhood cancer survivors exhibited similar or better cardiometabolic and lifestyle profiles compared with NHANES, but nonetheless are at risk for future clinically significant cardiovascular disease. Impact: Further strategies supporting optimal CRF control are warranted in survivors.
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Lipshultz ER; Chow EJ; Doody DR; Armenian SH; Asselin BL; Baker KS; Bhatia S; Constine LS; Freyer DR; Kopp LM
  • Start Page

  • 536
  • End Page

  • 542
  • Volume

  • 31
  • Issue

  • 3