Background: The purpose of the study was to evaluate secondary stroke prevention in Poland and its association with sociodemographic factors, place of residence, and concomitant cardiovascular risk factors. Material and methods: From all patients in LIPIDOGRAM2015 Study (n = 13,724), 268 subjects had a history of ischaemic stroke and were included. Results: 165 subjects (61.6%) used at least one preventive medication. Oral antiplatelet and anticoagulation agents were used by 116 (43.3%) and 70 (26.1%) patients, respectively. Only 157 (58.6%) participants used lipid-lowering drugs, and 205 (76.5%) were treated with antihypertensive drugs. Coronary heart disease (CHD) and dyslipidaemia were associated with antiplatelet treatment (p = 0.047 and p = 0.012, respectively). A history of atrial fibrillation, CHD, and previous myocardial infarction correlated with anticoagulant treatment (p = 0.001, p = 0.011, and p < 0.0001, respectively). Age, gender, time from stroke onset, place of residence, and level of education were not associated with antiplatelet or anticoagulant treatment. Only 31.7% of patients were engaged in regular physical activity, 62% used appropriate diet, and 13.6% were current smokers. Conclusions: In Poland drugs and lifestyle modification for secondary stroke prevention are not commonly adhered to. Educational programmes for physicians and patients should be developed to improve application of effective secondary prevention of stroke.