The underlying molecular mechanisms of resistance to cisplatin-based systemic chemotherapy in bladder cancer patients remain to be elucidated, while the link between androgen receptor (AR) activity and chemosensitivity in urothelial cancer has been implicated. Our DNA microarray analysis in control vs. AR knockdown bladder cancer lines identified GULP1 as a potential target of AR signaling. We herein determined the relationship between AR activity and GULP1 expression in bladder cancer cells and then assessed the functional role of GULP1 in cisplatin sensitivity. Androgen treatment in AR-positive cells or AR overexpression in AR-negative cells considerably reduced the levels of GULP1 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation further showed direct interaction of AR with the promoter region of GULP1. Meanwhile, GULP1 knockdown sublines were significantly more resistant to cisplatin treatment compared with respective controls. GULP1 knockdown also resulted in a significant decrease in apoptosis, as well as a significant increase in G2/M phases, when treated with cisplatin. In addition, GULP1 was immunoreactive in 74% of muscle-invasive bladder cancers from patients who had subsequently undergone neoadjuvant chemotherapy, including 53% of responders showing moderate (2+)/strong (3+) expression vs. 23% of non-responders showing 2+/3+ expression (P = 0.044). These findings indicate that GULP1 represents a key downstream effector of AR signaling in enhancing sensitivity to cisplatin treatment.