Combined effects of high-dose bisphenol A and oxidizing agent (KBrO3) on cellular microenvironment, gene expression, and chromatin structure of Ku70-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts

Academic Article

Abstract

  • Background: Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has been reported to alter global gene expression, induce epigenetic modifications, and interfere with complex regulatory networks of cells. In addition to these reprogramming events, we have demonstrated that BPA exposure generates reactive oxygen species and promotes cellular survival when co-exposed with the oxidizing agent potassium bromate (KBrO3). oBjectives: We determined the cellular microenvironment changes induced by co-exposure of BPA and KBrO3 versus either agent alone. Methods: Ku70-deficient cells were exposed to 150 μM BPA, 20 mM KBrO3, or co-exposed to both agents. Four and 24 hr post-damage initiation by KBrO3, with BPA-only samples timed to coincide with these designated time points, we performed whole-genome microarray analysis and evaluated chromatin structure, DNA lesion load, glutathione content, and intracellular pH. results: We found that 4 hr post-damage initiation, BPA exposure and co-exposure transiently condensed chromatin compared with untreated and KBrO3-only treated cells; the transcription of DNA repair proteins was also reduced. At this time point, BPA exposure and co-exposure also reduced the change in intracellular pH observed after treatment with KBrO3 alone. Twenty-four hours post-damage initiation, BPA-exposed cells showed less condensed chromatin than cells treated with KBrO3 alone; the intracellular pH of the co-exposed cells was significantly reduced compared with untreated and KBrO3-treated cells; and significant up-regulation of DNA repair proteins was observed after co-exposure. conclusion: These results support the induction of an adaptive response by BPA co-exposure that alters the microcellular environment and modulates DNA repair. Further work is required to deter-mine whether BPA induces similar DNA lesions in vivo at environmentally relevant doses; however, in the Ku70-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts, exposure to a high dose of BPA was associated with changes in the cellular microenvironment that may promote survival.
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    Author List

  • Gassman NR; Coskun E; Jaruga P; Dizdaroglu M; Wilson SH
  • Start Page

  • 1241
  • End Page

  • 1252
  • Volume

  • 124
  • Issue

  • 8