Halogen-induced chemical injury to the mammalian cardiopulmonary systems

Academic Article


  • The halogens chlorine (Cl2) and bromine (Br2) are highly reactive oxidizing elements with widespread industrial applications and a history of development and use as chemical weapons. When inhaled, depending on the dose and duration of exposure, they cause acute and chronic injury to both the lungs and systemic organs that may result in the development of chronic changes (such as fibrosis) and death from cardiopulmonary failure. A number of conditions, such as viral infections, coexposure to other toxic gases, and pregnancy increase susceptibility to halogens significantly. Herein we review their danger to public health, their mechanisms of action, and the development of pharmacological agents that when administered post-exposure decrease morbidity and mortality.
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Addis DR; Aggarwal S; Lazrak A; Jilling T; Matalon S
  • Start Page

  • 272
  • End Page

  • 291
  • Volume

  • 36
  • Issue

  • 5