The primary cause of gastric cancer is chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), particularly the high-risk genotype cagA, and risk modification by human genetic variants. We studied 94 variants in 54 genes for association with gastric cancer, including rs2302615 in ornithine decarboxylase (ODC1), which may affect response to chemoprevention with the ODC inhibitor, eflornithine (difluoromethylornithine; DFMO). Our population-based, case-control study included 1366 individuals (664 gastric cancer cases and 702 controls) from Western Honduras, a high incidence region of Latin America. CagA seropositivity was strongly associated with cancer (OR = 3.6; 95% CI: 2.6, 5.1). The ODC1 variant rs2302615 was associated with gastric cancer (OR = 1.36; p = 0.018) in a model adjusted for age, sex, and CagA serostatus. Two additional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CASP1 (rs530537) and TLR4 (rs1927914) genes were also associated with gastric cancer in univariate models as well as models adjusted for age, sex, and CagA serostatus. The ODC1 SNP association with gastric cancer was stronger in individuals who carried the TT genotype at the associating TLR4 polymorphism, rs1927914 (OR = 1.77; p = 1.85 × 10−3). In conclusion, the ODC1 variant, rs2302615, is associated with gastric cancer and supports chemoprevention trials with DFMO, particularly in individuals homozygous for the T allele at rs1927914.