Human cytomegalovirus infection of the developing fetus is a leading cause of neurodevelopmental disorders in infants and children, leading to long-term neurological sequela in a significant number of infected children. Current understanding of the neuropathogenesis of this intrauterine infection is limited because of the complexity of this infection, which includes maternal immunological responses that are overlaid on virus replication in the CNS during neurodevelopment. Furthermore, available data from human cases are observational, and tissues from autopsy studies have been derived from only the most severe infections. Animal models of this human infection are also limited by the strict species specificity of cytomegaloviruses. However, informative models including non-human primates and small animal models have been developed. These include several different murine models of congenital HCMV infection for the study of CMV neuropathogenesis. Although individual murine models do not completely recapitulate all aspects of the human infection, each model has provided significant information that has extended current understanding of the neuropathogenesis of this human infection. This review will compare and contrast different murine models in the context of available information from human studies of CNS disease following congenital HCMV infections.