Current knowledge of mitochondrial biology and function has provided tools and technologies that helped a better understanding of the molecular etiology of complex mitochondrial disorders. Dual genetic control of this subcellular organelle function regulates various signaling mechanisms which are essential for metabolism, bioenergetics, fatty acid biosynthesis, and DNA replication & repair. Understanding nuclear mitochondrial crosstalk through advanced genomics as well as clinical perspectives is the overall basis of mitochondrial research and medicine, also the sole objective of Society for Mitochondrial Medicine and Research (SMRM) - India. The eighth virtual international conference on ‘Advances in Mitochondrial Medicine and Translational Research’ was organized at the Manipal School of Life Sciences, MAHE, Manipal, India, during 6 – 7 November 2020. The aim of the virtual conference was to highlight the recent advances and future perspectives that represent comprehensive clinical and fundamental research interests in the area of mitochondrial biology of human diseases. To systematically present the various findings in mitochondrial biology, the meeting was themed with specific aspects comprising (a) mitochondrial disorders: clinical & genomic perspectives, (b) mitochondria in cancer, (c) mitochondrial metabolism & disorders, and (d) mitochondrial diseases & therapy. This report provides an overview of the recent advancements in the area of mitochondrial biology and medicine that was discussed at the conference.