Comprehensive evaluation of disparities in cardiometabolic and reproductive risk between Hispanic and White women with polycystic ovary syndrome in the United States: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Academic Article


  • Objective: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to comprehensively compare cardiometabolic and reproductive health risk between Hispanic and White women with polycystic ovary syndrome in the United States in response to the call by the international guideline for polycystic ovary syndrome to delineate health disparities. Data Sources: Databases of MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Scopus were initially searched through October 25, 2020, and confirmed on February 1, 2021. Study Eligibility Criteria: Observational studies comparing glucoregulatory, lipid profile, anthropometric, blood pressure, androgen, ovarian morphology, oligoanovulation, and infertility status between Hispanic and White women with polycystic ovary syndrome were included. The primary outcome was metabolic syndrome risk. Furthermore, major cardiovascular events (stroke, coronary heart disease, and heart failure) and mortality rate (cardiovascular death and total mortality) data were evaluated. Studies on adolescents (<2 years after menarche), pregnant, or menopausal-aged women (>50 years) were excluded. Methods: Data were pooled by random-effects models and expressed as mean differences and 95% confidence intervals. Risk of bias was assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Results: A total of 11 studies (n=2267; 589 Hispanic and 1678 White women) were eligible. All studies, including both White and Hispanic women, had high-quality assessment (Newcastle-Ottawa Scale score of ≥8). Hispanic women exhibited comparable metabolic syndrome prevalence (7% [95% confidence interval, −1 to 14]; P=.06; I2=0%); however, Hispanic women exhibited higher modified Ferriman-Gallwey score (0.60 [95% confidence interval, −0.01 to 1.21]; P=.05; I2=0%), fasting insulin (5.48 μIU/mL [95% confidence interval, 3.11–7.85]; P≤.01; I2=40.0%), and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (1.20 [95% confidence interval, 0.50–1.89]; P≤.01; I2=43.0%) than White women. The 2 groups had comparable glucose, lipid profile, waist circumference, blood pressure, and androgen status (all P≥.08). Findings about group differences in certain reproductive outcomes (ie, ovarian dysmorphology and infertility) were contradictory and described only narratively as inclusion in the meta-analyses was not possible. No study reported on cardiovascular events or mortality. Conclusion: Hispanic women with polycystic ovary syndrome exhibited greater impairments in glucoregulatory status than White women. Disparities in reproductive risks could not be concluded. The degree to which glucoregulatory aberrations translate into patient-pressing diseases (diabetes mellitus and infertility) remains a major roadblock given the paucity of available evidence. Our observations have supported the consideration of these disparities in the diagnostic, monitoring, and management practices for polycystic ovary syndrome and reinforced the need to elucidate mechanisms that account for the observed disparities to foster equity in polycystic ovary syndrome care.
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  • Kazemi M; Kim JY; Wan C; Xiong JD; Parry SA; Azziz R; Lujan ME