Secondary sarcomas are a subset of sarcomas that occur in patients with prior cancer diagnoses and are associated with environmental or genetic factors. Although secondary sarcomas are rare in general, there are predisposing factors that can substantially increase this risk in certain populations. Herein, we review the environmental factors with the strongest association of sarcoma risk, including chemical exposure, certain viruses, cytotoxic and immunosuppressive agents, chronic edema, and radiation exposure. Additionally, the most common genetic disorders that carry a predisposition for sarcoma development will be discussed, including hereditary retinoblastoma (RB), Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), and DICER1 syndrome. Although treatment does not generally differ for sporadic versus secondary sarcomas, awareness of the risk factors can alter therapeutic strategies to minimize risk, aid prompt diagnosis by increasing clinical suspicion, and allow for appropriate surveillance and genetic counseling for those patients with cancer predisposition syndromes.