BACKGROUND: Cardiac markers such as high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) and N-terminal pro-B natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) are predictors of developing acute kidney injury (AKI) during hospitalization for surgery or revascularization. However, their associations with the long-term risk of AKI in the general population are uncharacterized. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study in 10 669 participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (visit 4, 1996-1998, mean age, 63 years, 56% female, 22% black race) to examine the association of plasma concentrations of hs-cTnT and NTproBNP with the incident hospitalization with AKI. We used multivariable Cox regression analysis to estimate hazard ratios (HRs). RESULTS: During follow-up, 1907 participants had an incident hospitalization with AKI. Participants with higher concentrations of hs-cTnT had a higher risk of hospitalization with AKI in a graded fashion (adjusted HR, 1.88 [95%CI , 1.59-2.21] for ≥14 ng/L, 1.36 [1.18-1.57] for 9-13 ng/L, and 1.16 [1.03-1.30] for 5-8 ng/L compared to <5 ng/L). The graded association was also observed for NTproBNP (HR, 2.27 [1.93-2.68] for ≥272.7 pg/mL, 1.67 [1.45-1.93] for 142.4-272.6 pg/mL, and 1.31 [1.17-1.47] for 64.0-142.3 pg/mL compared to <64.0 pg/mL). The addition of hs-cTnT and NTproBNP to a model with established predictors significantly improved 10-year risk prediction for hospitalization with AKI (Δc-statistic, 0.015 [95%CI, 0.006-0.024]). CONCLUSIONS: In middle-aged to older black and white adults in the community, higher concentrations of hs-cTnT and NTproBNP were robustly associated with an increased risk of hospitalization with AKI. These results suggest the usefulness of hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP to identify people at risk of AKI in the general population.