The histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a family of enzymes that catalyse lysine deacetylation of both histone and non-histone proteins. Here, we review, summarize, and provide perspectives on the literature regarding one such HDAC, HDAC1, in endothelial biology. In the endothelium, HDAC1 mediates the effects of external and environmental stimuli by regulating major endothelial functions such as angiogenesis, inflammatory signalling, redox homeostasis, and nitric oxide signalling. Angiogenesis is most often, but not exclusively, repressed by endothelial HDAC1. The regulation of inflammatory signalling is more complex as HDAC1 promotes or suppresses inflammatory signalling depending upon the environmental stimuli. HDAC1 is protective in models of atherosclerosis where loss of HDAC1 results in increased cytokine and cell adhesion molecule (CAM) abundance. In other models, HDAC1 promotes inflammation by increasing CAMs and repressing claudin-5 expression. Consistently, from many investigations, HDAC1 decreases antioxidant enzyme expression and nitric oxide production in the endothelium. HDAC1 decreases antioxidant enzyme expression through the deacetylation of histones and transcription factors, and also regulates nitric oxide production through regulating both the expression and activity of nitric oxide synthase 3. The HDAC1-dependent regulation of endothelial function through the deacetylation of both histone and non-histone proteins ultimately impacts whole animal physiology and health.