Non-human primates (NHPs) are a preferred animal model for optimizing adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated CNS gene delivery protocols before clinical trials. In spite of its inherent appeal, it is challenging to compare different serotypes, delivery routes, and disease indications in a well-powered, comprehensive, multigroup NHP experiment. Here, a multiplex barcode recombinant AAV (rAAV) vector-tracing strategy has been applied to a systemic analysis of 29 distinct, wild-type (WT), AAV natural isolates and engineered capsids in the CNS of eight macaques. The report describes distribution of each capsid in 15 areas of the macaques’ CNS after intraparenchymal (putamen) injection, or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-mediated administration routes (intracisternal, intrathecal, or intracerebroventricular). To trace the vector biodistribution (viral DNA) and targeted tissues transduction (viral mRNA) of each capsid in each of the analyzed CNS areas, quantitative next-generation sequencing analysis, assisted by the digital-droplet PCR technology, was used. The report describes the most efficient AAV capsid variants targeting specific CNS areas after each route of administration using the direct side-by-side comparison of WT AAV isolates and a new generation of rationally designed capsids. The newly developed bioinformatics and visualization algorithms, applicable to the comparative analysis of several mammalian brain models, have been developed and made available in the public domain.