Large amounts of sulfur dioxide are released into the atmosphere from the burning of fossil fuels, by power plants and industrial facilities that utilize it for making chemicals like sulfuric acid, pesticides, preservatives, wine and other beverages. Atmospheric sulfur dioxide is itself an enormous health concern and other oxides produced upon its reaction with environmental compounds further increase the human health risks. Moreover, high concentrations of sulfur dioxide also damages trees, plants and vegetation. Sulfur dioxide in humid atmosphere causes acid rain and leads to destruction of sensitive ecosystems. Environmental protection agencies throughout the world monitor atmospheric sulfur dioxide and have defined rules to reduce its emissions. However, industrial workers and the general public are at risk of occupational or accidental sulfur dioxide exposure due to its use or transport. In this chapter we discuss the human health risks and adverse effects of acute accidental exposure to sulfur dioxide and its increased environmental presence.