Transfusion-acquired cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections should be prevented in seronegative immunocompromised patients by providing blood products from donors who are also seronegative. Latex agglutination was investigated as a simple and rapid method for detecting antibody against CMV. Latex beads were coated with CMV antigen, incubated for 8 min at room temperature with 25 μl of sera, and examined for agglutination. The sensitivity and specificity of latex agglutination was compared with that of indirect hemagglutination (IHA, Cetus Corp., Emeryville, Calif.) and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with sera from 604 random blood donors or patients. Of 327 serum samples shown to be seronegative by EIA and IHA, 327 had a latex agglutination titer of < 1:4 (specificity, 100%). Of 236 serum samples with detectable antibody by EIA and IHA, 228 had a latex agglutination titer of 1:4 or greater (sensitivity, 97%). Plasma collected with EDTA, heparin, or citrate was satisfactory for latex agglutination. Latex agglutination results correlated quantitatively with those of EIA, and the test also detected fourfold or greater rises in antibody with paired sera from six patients with posttransfusion CMV infections. Latex agglutination is a sensitive and specific assay that is rapid and simple to perform and should be effective in selecting seronegative blood donors to prevent posttransfusion CMV infections in seronegative recipients.