The consensus of current international guidelines for the treatment of HIV infection is that data on therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors provide a framework for the implementation of TDM in certain defined scenarios in clinical practice. However, the utility of TDM is considered to be on an individual basis until more data are obtained from large clinical trials showing the benefit of TDM. In April 2004, a panel of experts met in Rome, Italy. This followed an inaugural meeting in Perugia, Italy, in October 2000, which resulted in the article published in AIDS 2002, 16(Suppl 1):S5-S37. The objectives of this second meeting were to review the questions surrounding TDM of antiretroviral drugs and discuss the clinical utility, current concerns and future prospects of drug concentration monitoring in the care of HIV-1-infected individuals. This report, which has been updated to include material published or presented at international conferences up to the end of September 2004, reviews pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data and reports the issues discussed by the panel, offering advice to clinical care providers who may be currently, or are considering incorporating TDM into the routine care of their patients. In addition, the panel formulated a series of position statements that are relevant to the interpretation of current data and can aid the design of future clinical trials. © 2005 International Medical Press.