Automatic Segmentation Using Deep Learning to Enable Online Dose Optimization During Adaptive Radiation Therapy of Cervical Cancer

Academic Article


  • Purpose: This study investigated deep learning models for automatic segmentation to support the development of daily online dose optimization strategies, eliminating the need for internal target volume expansions and thereby reducing toxicity events of intensity modulated radiation therapy for cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: The cervix-uterus, vagina, parametrium, bladder, rectum, sigmoid, femoral heads, kidneys, spinal cord, and bowel bag were delineated on 408 computed tomography (CT) scans from patients treated at MD Anderson Cancer Center (n = 214), Polyclinique Bordeaux Nord Aquitaine (n = 30), and enrolled in a Medical Image Computing & Computer Assisted Intervention challenge (n = 3). The data were divided into 255 training, 61 validation, 62 internal test, and 30 external test CT scans. Two models were investigated: the 2-dimensional (2D) DeepLabV3+ (Google) and 3-dimensional (3D) Unet in RayStation (RaySearch Laboratories). Three intensity modulated radiation therapy plans were generated on each CT of the internal and external test sets using either the manual, 2D model, or 3D model segmentations. The dose constraints followed the External beam radiochemotherapy and MRI based adaptive BRAchytherapy in locally advanced CErvical cancer (EMBRACE) II protocol, with reduced margins of 5 and 3 mm for the target and nodal planning target volume. Geometric discrepancies between the manual and predicted contours were assessed using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), distance-to-agreement, and Hausdorff distance. Dosimetric discrepancies between the manual and model doses were assessed using clinical indices on the manual contours and the gamma index. Interobserver variability was assessed for the cervix-uterus, parametrium, and vagina for the definition of the primary clinical target volume (CTVT) on the external test set. Results: Average DSCs across all organs were 0.67 to 0.96, 0.71 to 0.97, and 0.42 to 0.92 for the 2D model and 0.66 to 0.96, 0.70 to 0.97, and 0.37 to 0.93 for the 3D model on the validation, internal, and external test sets. Average DSCs of the CTVT were 0.88 and 0.81 for the 2D model and 0.87 and 0.82 for the 3D model on the internal and external test sets. Interobserver variability of the CTVT corresponded to a mean (range) DSC of 0.85 (0.77-0.90) on the external test set. On the internal test set, the doses from the 2D and 3D model contours provided a CTVT V42.75 Gy >98% for 98% and 91% of the CT scans, respectively. On the external test set, these percentages were increased to 100% and 93% for the 2D and 3D models, respectively. Conclusions: The investigated models provided auto-segmentation of the cervix anatomy with similar performances on 2 institutional data sets and reasonable dosimetric accuracies using small planning target volume margins, paving the way to automatic online dose optimization for advanced adaptive radiation therapy strategies.
  • Authors

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Rigaud B; Anderson BM; Yu ZH; Gobeli M; Cazoulat G; Söderberg J; Samuelsson E; Lidberg D; Ward C; Taku N
  • Start Page

  • 1096
  • End Page

  • 1110
  • Volume

  • 109
  • Issue

  • 4