In a two-hybrid screen for proteins that interact with human PCNA, we identified and cloned a human protein (hCdc18) homologous to yeast CDC6/Cdc18 and human Orc1. Unlike yeast, in which the rapid and total destruction of CDC6/Cdc18 protein in S phase is a central feature of DNA replication, the total level of the human protein is unchanged throughout the cell cycle. Epitope-tagged protein is nuclear in G1 and cytoplasmic in S-phase cells, suggesting that DNA replication may be regulated by either the translocation of this protein between the nucleus and the cytoplasm or the selective degradation of the protein in the nucleus. Mutation of the only nuclear localization signal of this protein does not alter its nuclear localization, implying that the protein is translocated to the nucleus through its association with other nuclear proteins. Rapid elimination of the nuclear pool of this protein after the onset of DNA replication and its association with human Orc1 protein and cyclin-cdks supports its identification as human CDC6/Cdc18 protein.