The genetics of skeletal muscle lineage commitment are deceptively complicated. MyoD overexpression is sufficient to convert fibroblasts into skeletal muscle myotubes. In vivo, there are a number of different steps of differentiation that require a large network of transcription factors that control differentiation and homeostasis of skeletal muscle progenitors. Each transcription factor has been shown to have the ability to promote the next factor in the cascade, but the mechanisms regulating the transitions remain incomplete. Recently, microRNAs have been shown to be important for a large number of developmental and oncogenic processes. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in the understanding of how microRNA is critical for skeletal muscle development by interacting with protein-coding genes that had previously been shown to be important for myogenesis. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.