MUNC, an enhancer RNA upstream from the MYOD gene, induces a subgroup of myogenic transcripts in trans independently of MyoD

Academic Article


  • MyoD upstream noncoding RNA (MUNC) initiates in the distal regulatory region (DRR) enhancer of MYOD and is formally classified as an enhancer RNA (DRR eRNA ). MUNC is required for optimal myogenic differentiation, induces specific myogenic transcripts in trans (MYOD, MYOGENIN, and MYH3), and has a functional human homolog. The vast majority of eRNAs are believed to act in cis primarily on their neighboring genes (1, 2), making it likely that MUNC action is dependent on the induction of MYOD RNA. Surprisingly, MUNC overexpression in MYOD/ C2C12 cells induces many myogenic transcripts in the complete absence of MyoD protein. Genomewide analysis showed that, while many genes are regulated by MUNC in a MyoD-dependent manner, there is a set of genes that are regulated by MUNC, both upward and downward, independently of MyoD. MUNC and MyoD even appear to act antagonistically on certain transcripts. Deletion mutagenesis showed that there are at least two independent functional sites on the MUNC long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), with exon 1 more active than exon 2 and with very little activity from the intron. Thus, although MUNC is an eRNA of MYOD, it is also a trans-acting lncRNA whose sequence, structure, and cooperating factors, which include but are not limited to MyoD, determine the regulation of many myogenic genes.
  • Authors

    Published In

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Pubmed Id

  • 20711930
  • Author List

  • Cichewicz MA; Kiran M; Przanowska RK; Sobierajska E; Shibata Y; Dutta A
  • Volume

  • 38
  • Issue

  • 20