Evidence from across the tree of life suggests that epigenetic inheritance is more common than previously thought. If epigenetic inheritance is indeed as common as the data suggest, this finding has potentially important implications for evolutionary theory and our understanding of how evolution and adaptation progress. However, we currently lack an understanding of how common various epigenetic inheritance types are, and how they impact phenotypes. In this perspective, we review the open questions that need to be addressed to fully integrate epigenetic inheritance into evolutionary theory and to develop reliable predictive models for phenotypic evolution. We posit that addressing these challenges will require the collaboration of biologists from different disciplines and a focus on the exploration of data and phenomena without preconceived limits on potential mechanisms or outcomes.