Context: The peptide neurotensin is implicated in insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus (DM), and cardiovascular disease. Objective: We studied the association of neurotensin's stable precursor, pro-neurotensin/neuromedin N (pro-NT/NMN) with incident metabolic syndrome (MetS) and DM. Methods: We included 3772 participants from the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study who completed the baseline exam (2003-2007), the follow-up exam (2013-2016), and had pro-NT/NMN measured by immunoassay. Weighted logistic regression models were fitted to incident DM, incident MetS, and each MetS component, separately, incorporating demographics, metabolic risk factors, homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and diet scores. Incident MetS was defined by 3 or more harmonized criteria at follow-up in those with fewer than 3 at baseline. Incident DM was defined by use of hypoglycemic drugs/insulin, fasting glucose 126 mg/dL or greater, or random glucose 200 mg/dL or greater in those without these at baseline. Results: Median (IQR) plasma pro-NT/NMN was 160 pmol/L (118-218 pmol/L). A total of 564 (of 2770 without baseline MetS) participants developed MetS, and 407 (of 3030 without baseline DM) developed DM. Per SD higher log-pro-NT/NMN, the demographic-adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI of incident MetS was 1.22 (1.11-1.35), 1.16 (1.00-1.35) for incident low high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and 1.25 (1.11-1.40) for incident dysglycemia. The association of pro-NT/NMN with MetS was attenuated in the model adding HOMA-IR (OR per SD log-pro-NT/NMN 1.14; 95% CI, 1.00-1.30). There was no association with incident DM (OR per SD log-pro-NT/NMN 1.06; 95% CI, 0.94-1.19). Conclusion: Pro-NT/NMN was associated with MetS and 2 components, dysglycemia and low HDL, likely explained by insulin resistance.