Stat6 is a transcription factor that regulates important cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and survival through mediating IL-4 and IL-13 signaling. Importantly, increasing evidence indicates of a role for Stat6 in lymphoproliferative disorders. Mice expressing a constitutively active form of Stat6 (Stat6VT) primarily in T lymphocytes were generated, and it has been recently described that a small percentage (~5%) of these mice develop a spontaneous lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD) resulting in dramatic splenomegaly and altered splenic cell populations. Here, we report that Stat6VT mice housed in a non-pathogen-free environment have an increased incidence (37%) of the LPD. Additionally, examination of the expression of Stat6-regulated genes known to have roles in tumorigenesis demonstrated that there appears to be no one genetic alteration common to lymphocytes from Stat6VT/LPD mice. Interestingly, however, uniform exposure to antigen via immunization resulted in complete abrogation of the LPD in Stat6VT mice. © 2009 Elsevier GmbH.