Purpose: To develop an algorithm for the appropriate audiologic screening of in children with head trauma. Methods: Participants were the first consecutive 50 children admitted to a children's hospital trauma service after October 1, 2005, whose injuries resulted in a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score ≤13 and/or loss of consciousness (LOC) but no history of hearing loss. Screening tympanometry, otoacoustic emissions testing, and/or routine audiometric evaluation were performed as soon as possible after admission. Age, GCS score, Pediatric Trauma Score, Injury Severity Score, presence of head and neck soft tissue injury, temporal bone fracture, skull fracture not involving the temporal bone, midface/mandible fractures, intracranial abnormality on computed tomography, and cervical fracture were analyzed as risk factors for hearing loss. Results: Seventeen (34%) of the 50 children had abnormal hearing test results. Fischer's exact test showed abnormal test results were most strongly related to temporal bone fracture (p= 0.0041), non-temporal bone skull fracture (p= 0.0211) and younger age (p= 0.0638). Conclusions: Any child with head trauma and clinical or radiologic evidence of temporal bone fracture should have early hearing evaluation. Using the proposed algorithm to test children with head trauma and GCS ≤13 and/or LOC and age <3 years or any type of skull fracture may help identify children with hearing loss in a more cost effective manner. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.