Informing the new developments and future of cancer immunotherapy: Future of cancer immunotherapy

Academic Article


  • The application of cancer immunotherapy (CIT) in reinforcing anti-tumor immunity in response to carcinogenesis and metastasis has shown promising advances, along with new therapeutic challenges, in the landscape of cancer care. To promote tumor growth and metastasis, cancer cells aim to manipulate their microenvironment by mediating a crosstalk with various immune cells through the secretion of chemokines, cytokines, and other associated factors. Understanding this crosstalk is the key to discovering the best targets for improved immunotherapies and clinical strategies in cancer treatment. Here, we review the tumor immune crosstalk in cancer growth and metastasis. This review also highlights the development and expansion of CIT over the years. Moreover, we highlight clinical challenges and limitations involving immune-related adverse events, treating cancer patients with pre-existing autoimmune diseases, and the management of immunotherapy-induced treatment resistance. Possible clinical solutions to these current challenges in CIT are also proposed. Altogether, this review can contribute to the formation of pre-clinical and treatment-related strategies that further develop the availability and effectiveness of CIT.
  • Authors

    Published In

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Kumar A; Swain CA; Shevde LA
  • Start Page

  • 549
  • End Page

  • 562
  • Volume

  • 40
  • Issue

  • 2