Associations between modifiable factors and the efficacy of cancer immunotherapies remain uncertain. We found previously that diet-induced obesity (DIO) reduces the efficacy of an immunotherapy consisting of adenovirus-encoded TRAIL plus CpG oligonucleotide (AdT/CpG) in mice with renal tumors. To eliminate confounding effects of diet and determine whether outcomes could be improved in DIO mice, we evaluated AdT/CpG combined with anti-CTLA-4 in diet-matched, obese-resistant (OB-RES) versus DIO tumor-bearing mice. Therapy-treated OB-RES mice displayed effective renal tumor control and sustained CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses. In contrast, therapy-treated DIO mice exhibited progressive tumor outgrowth and blunted T cell responses, characterized by reduced intratumoral frequencies of IFNγ+ CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Weak effector T cell responses in therapy-treated DIO mice were accompanied by low intratumoral concentrations of the T cell chemoattractant CCL5, heightened concentrations of pro-tumorigenic GM-CSF, and impaired proliferative capacity of CD44+ CD8+ T cells in tumor-draining lymph nodes. Our findings demonstrate that in lean mice with renal tumors, combining in situ T cell priming upstream of anti-CTLA-4 enhances outcomes versus anti-CTLA-4 alone. However, host obesity is associated with heightened immunotherapy resistance, characterized by multi-factorial deficiencies in effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses that extend beyond the tumor microenvironment.