Following primary infection, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) establishes a latent infection in hematopoietic cells from which it reactivates to cause serious disease in immunosuppressed patients such as allograft recipients. HCMV is a common cause of disease in newborns and transplant patients and has also been linked with vascular diseases such as primary and post-transplant arteriosclerosis. A major factor in the pathogenesis of vascular disease is the CC chemokine MCP-1. In this study, we demonstrate that granulocyte macrophage progenitors (GMPs) latently infected with HCMV significantly increased expression of MCP-1 and that this phenotype was dependent on infection with viable virus. Inhibitors of a subset of Gα proteins and PI3K inhibited the up-regulation of MCP-1 in latently infected cultures, suggesting that the mechanism underlying this phenotype involves signaling through a G-protein coupled receptor. In GMPs infected with the low passage viral strain Toledo, up-regulated MCP-1 was restricted to a subset of myeloid progenitor cells expressing CD33, HLA-DR, and CD14 but not CDla, CD15, or CD16, and the increase in MCP-1 was sufficient to enhance migration of CD14+ monocytes to latently infected cells. Latent HCMV-mediated up-regulation of MCP-1 provides a mechanism by which HCMV may contribute to vascular disease during the latent phase of infection or facilitate dissemination of virus upon reactivation from latency. Copyright © 2008 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.