ABSTRACT: Hunter, GR, Singh, H, Martins, C, Baranauskas, MN, and Carter, SJ. Stretch-shortening cycle potentiation and resistance training-induced changes in walking economy/ease and activity-related energy expenditure in older women. J Strength Cond Res 35(5): 1345-1349, 2021-Use of elastic energy to improve economy and ease of walking may be important for older adults. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether baseline (i.e., untrained) stretch-shortening cycle potentiation (SSCP) was associated with potential changes in free-living activity-related energy expenditure (AEE) after supervised exercise training. Sedentary, postmenopausal women (n = 64) between 60 and 74 years of age were evaluated before and after 16 weeks of combined aerobic and resistance training. Assessments included: (a) body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), (b) resting energy expenditure (indirect calorimetry), (c) submaximal and maximal walking (treadmill/indirect calorimetry), (d) total energy expenditure (doubly labeled water), and (e) one repetition maximum performed on an incline leg press and SSCP (calculated as the difference between concentric and countermovement leg press throw). Results indicated that baseline SSCP was related (r = -0.29; p < 0.02) to changes in AEE. However, subjects who possessed a high baseline SSCP did not increase SSCP or AEE, whereas subjects with low to moderate baseline SSCP demonstrated a significant increase in both SSCP (low +0.54 and moderate +0.47 m·s-1) and AEE (low +158 and moderate +333 kcal·d-1) post-training (all p less than 0.05). Our findings suggest that among subjects with low to moderate baseline SSCP, 16 weeks of combined aerobic and resistance training can increase SSCP and free-living AEE. However, subjects with high baseline SSCP may require tailored exercise to increase SSCP and possibly AEE.