Obesity has achieved epidemic status in the United States, resulting in an increase in type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease. Numerous studies have shown that inflammation plays a key role in the development of insulin resistance and diabetic complications. HDL cholesterol levels are inversely associated with coronary heart disease in humans. The beneficial effect of HDL is due, in part, to apolipoproteins A-I and E, which possess anti-inflammatory properties. The functional quality of HDL, however, may be reduced in the context of diabetes. Thus, raising levels of functional HDL is an important target for reducing inflammation and diabetic complications. Apo A-I possesses eight alpha-helical sequences, most of which form class A amphipathic helical structures. Peptides belonging to this class inhibit atherogenesis in several mouse models. Additional peptides based on structural components of apoE have been shown to mediate a rapid clearance of atherogenic lipoproteins in dyslipidemic mice. In this review, we discuss the efficacy of apolipoprotein mimetic peptides in improving lipoprotein function, reducing inflammation, and reversing insulin resistance and cardiometabolic disease processes in diabetic animals.