Gynecologic malignancies are increasing in incidence, with a plateau in clinical outcomes ne-cessitating novel treatment options. Immunotherapy and modulation of the tumor microenvironment are rapidly developing fields of interest in gynecologic oncology translational research; examples include the PD-1 (programmed cell death 1) and CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4) axes and the Wnt pathway. However, clinical successes with these agents have been modest and lag behind immunotherapy successes in other malignancies. A thorough contextualization of preclinical models utilized in gynecologic oncology immunotherapy research is necessary in order to effectively and efficiently develop translational medicine. These include murine models, in vitro assays, and three-dimensional human-tissue-based systems. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of preclinical models for immunotherapy in gynecologic malignancies, including benefits and limitations of each, in order to inform study design and translational research models. Improved model design and implementation will optimize preclinical research efficiency and increase the translational value to positive findings, facilitating novel treatments that improve patient outcomes.