The present work reports the effect of various surfactants on the morphology of In(OH)3 nanostructures prepared via anodization. In-sheets were anodized in an environmentally benign electrolyte containing a small quantity of CTAB, CTAC, and PDDA surfactants at room temperature. The produced nanostructures were characterized using XRD, HRTEM, SAED, and EDAX. The morphology of indium hydroxide (In(OH)3) nanostructures was successfully tailored in situ with the help of surfactants in 1 M KCl aqueous electrolyte. XRD results confirmed the formation of In(OH)3 and indium oxyhydroxide (InOOH) nanostructures in the pristine form which were transformed into single-phase cubic In2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) after calcination. HRTEM analyses showed that the morphology and size of the In(OH)3 nanostructures can be tuned to form nanorods, nanosheets and nanostrips using different surfactants. The results revealed that CTAC and PDDA surfactants have a profound effect on the morphology of In(OH)3 nanostructure compared to CTAB due to the higher concentration of Cl- ion. The possible mechanism of surfactants effect on the morphology is proposed. Furthermore, annealing converted the In(OH)3 nanostructures into spherical In2O3 NPs with uniform and homogeneous size. We anticipate that the morphology of other metal-oxides nanostructure can be tuned using this simple, facile and rapid technique. In2O3 NPs prepared without and with CTAB surfactant were further explored for the non-enzymatic detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Electrochemical measurements showed enhanced electrocatalytic performance with fast electron transfer (∼2s) between the redox centers of H2O2 and electrode surface. The In2O3 NPs prepared using CTAB/Au electrode exhibited about 4-fold increase in sensitivity compared to the bare Au electrode. The biosensor also demonstrated good reproducibility, higher selectivity, and increased shelf life.