Pig kidney xenotransplantation has the potential to alleviate the current shortage of deceased and living human organs and provide patients with end-stage renal disease with a greater opportunity for long-term survival and a better quality of life. In recent decades, advances in the genetic engineering of pigs and in immunosuppressive therapy have permitted the resolution of many historical obstacles to the success of pig kidney transplantation in nonhuman primates. Pig kidney xenotransplantation may soon be translated to the clinic. Given the potential risks of kidney xenotransplantation, particularly of immunologic rejection of the graft, potential patients must be carefully screened for inclusion in the initial clinical trials and immunologically monitored diligently post-transplantation. We provide an overview of the immunological methods we believe should be used to (i) screen potential patients for the first clinical trials to exclude those with a higher risk of rejection, and (ii) monitor patients with a pig kidney graft to determine their immunological response to the graft.