Diabetes is a public health problem and a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death in the United States. Diabetes is prevalent among underserved rural populations. The purposes of this study were to perform secondary analyses of existing clinical trial data to determine whether a diabetes health promotion and disease risk reduction intervention had an effect on diabetes fatalism, social support, and perceived diabetes self-management and to provide precise estimates of the mean levels of these variables in an understudied population. Data were collected during a cluster randomized trial implemented among African American participants (n = 146) in a rural, southern area and analyzed using a linear mixed model. The results indicated that the intervention had no significant effect on perceived diabetes management (p = 0.8), diabetes fatalism (p = 0.3), or social support (p = 0.4). However, the estimates showed that, in the population, diabetes fatalism levels were moderate (95% CI = (27.6, 31.3)), and levels of social support (CI = (4.0, 4.4)) and perceived diabetes self-management (CI = (27.7, 29.3)) were high. These findings suggest that diabetes fatalism, social support, and self-management perceptions influence diabetes self-care and rural health outcomes and should be addressed in diabetes interventions.