The Notch signaling pathway plays an essential role in a wide variety of biological processes including cell fate determination of vascular endothelial cells and the regulation of arterial differentiation and angiogenesis. The Notch pathway is also an essential regulator of tumor growth and survival by functioning as either an oncogene or a tumor suppressor in a context-dependent manner. Crosstalk between the Notch and other signaling pathways is also pivotal in tumor progression by promoting cancer cell growth, migration, invasion, metastasis, tumor angiogenesis, and the expansion of cancer stem cells (CSCs). In this review, we provide an overview and update of Notch signaling in endothelial cell fate determination and functioning, angiogenesis, and tumor progression, particularly in the development of CSCs and therapeutic resistance. We further summarize recent studies on how endothelial signaling crosstalk with the Notch pathway contributes to tumor angiogenesis and the development of CSCs, thereby providing insights into vascular biology within the tumor microenvironment and tumor progression.