Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma is a rare mature CD4+ T-cell neoplasm caused by the retrovirus human Tlymphotrophic virus type 1. At present there are approximately 20 million people infected globally with this virus, and most of these individuals belong to the endemic areas in southern Japan, Africa, the Caribbean basin, and Latin America. In the United States, it is usually seen in immigrants from these endemic regions. Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma predominantly affects the adult population and is rare in children. Adult T-cell leukemia/ lymphoma has 4 subtypes: acute, lymphomatous, chronic, and smoldering. Clinically, the first 2 variants are classified as aggressive, and the latter two are classified as indolent. Given the rare occurrence and diagnostic challenges associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, this review will highlight its salient features to aid in recognition of this entity and perform a comprehensive diagnostic workup. Copyright © 2014 College of American Pathologists.