Acute great toe (Hallux) pain is a common complaint encountered by the primary care physician. Pathological conditions can vary from acute trauma to acute exacerbation of underlying chronic conditions. Delay in treatment or misdiagnosis can lead to debilitating loss of function and long-lasting pain. This review endeavors to discuss the pertinent history, physical exam findings, radiographic evidence, conservative treatment options, and surgical management for the musculoskeletal causes of acute and acute on chronic great toe pain in the adult population. The acute pathologies discussed in this review are hallux fractures and dislocations, turf toe, sand toe, and sesamoid disorders. The chronic pathologies discussed include hallux rigidus, hallux valgus, and chronic sesamoiditis.